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Peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of OFDM systems

This tutorial points out that the peak power of an OFDM system is N times the average power - where N is the number of subcarriers. Thus, the PAPR of an OFDM system is N.

PAPR= | s peak | 2 S S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiuaiaadg eacaWGqbGaamOuaiabg2da9maalaaabaGaaiiFaiaadohadaWgaaWc baGaamiCaiaadwgacaWGHbGaam4AaaqabaGccaGG8bWaaWbaaSqabe aacaaIYaaaaaGcbaGaam4uamaaBaaaleaacaWGtbaabeaaaaaaaa@4406@
PAPR is the peak power divided by the average power.
PAPR= | s peak | 2 S S = N S S S S =N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaamiuaiaadg eacaWGqbGaamOuaiabg2da9maalaaabaGaaiiFaiaadohadaWgaaWc baGaamiCaiaadwgacaWGHbGaam4AaaqabaGccaGG8bWaaWbaaSqabe aacaaIYaaaaaGcbaGaam4uamaaBaaaleaacaWGtbaabeaaaaGccqGH 9aqpdaWcaaqaaiaad6eacaWGtbWaaSbaaSqaaiaadofaaeqaaaGcba Gaam4uamaaBaaaleaacaWGtbaabeaaaaGccqGH9aqpcaWGobaaaa@4B9E@
PAPR of an OFDM system is N - the number of subcarriers.

Let's compare single carrier and OFDM systems. Initially both shall use QPSK modulation and transmit with a power of 2 V 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGOmaiaayk W7caWGwbWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIYaaaaaaa@3A02@ . The difference is that the
OFDM transmission signal is the output of an IFFT that is power invariant normalized. The point is that the IFFT transforms some sets of QPSK symbols, i.e.
OFDM frequency domain symbols, to OFDM time symbols where all signals disappear but one, see examples in table. To keep the average power the peak
power of the remaining signal is N times the average power.

Single Carrier QPSK symbols IFFTSignals of OFDM symbol
Equal QPSK symbols [1, -1]Equal QPSK symbols [1, -1]
Equal QPSK symbols [1, -1]
OFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but oneOFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but one
OFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but one
Alternating QPSK symbols [1, -1], [-1, 1]  Alternating QPSK symbols [1, -1], [-1, 1]
Alternating QPSK symbols [1, -1], [-1, 1]
Another OFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but oneAnother OFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but one
Another OFDM time symbol where all signals disappear but one
All amplitudes and the peak amplitude of QPSK are 2 V MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaOaaaeaaca aIYaaaleqaaOGaamOvaaaa@37B3@ .                                                Peak amplitude of OFDM is 8+8 V=4V MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWaaOaaaeaaca aI4aGaey4kaSIaaGioaiaaykW7aSqabaGccaWGwbGaeyypa0JaaGin aiaaykW7caWGwbaaaa@3F12@ (N = 8).

This applies to OFDM systems in general:


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